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2017英语四级阅读技巧猜词的技巧有哪些

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来源: 作者: 2018-08-12 22:31:26

2017英语四级阅读技巧:猜词的技巧有哪些?

英语四级阅读中,难免遇到生词,这种情况下,需要猜词。那么,猜词有什么技巧呢?接下来为你解答。

2017英语四级阅读技巧:猜词的技巧有哪些?

在做英语四级阅读理解题目的时候,有时会碰到一些生僻词汇,所以我们要掌握一些技巧,才能在面对它们时不会束手无策。下面就为大家分享两个猜词小技巧,希望能帮助到因生词而困惑的考生们!

(1) 构词知识

即利用单词的构词要素词根,前后缀来识记单词。

词根是一个单词的根本部分,代表词的基本意义;前缀是加在词根或单词前面的部分,通常也有一定含义;后缀是加在词根或单词后面的部分,通常在增加词义的同时还改变词性。通过词根词缀构词的方式有多种,现简单归纳如下:

①前缀+词根:inter(中间)+vene→intervene(介入)

②词根+后缀:circl(圆)+let(小)→circlet(小环)

③词根+词根:tele(远)+scope(镜)→telescope(望远镜)

④前缀+词根+后缀:in(不)+aud(听)+ible(可)→inaudible(听不见)

⑤双前缀+词根:re(再)+dis(取下)+cover(盖)→rediscover(再发现)

⑥词根+双后缀:care(用心)+less(不)+ly(地)→carelessly(不小心地)

⑦前缀+双词根:tri(三)+gono(角)+metry(测量)→trigonometry(三角几何)

⑧双词根+后缀:biblio(书)+phil(爱)+ist(人)→bibliophilist(书籍爱好者)

⑨双前缀+词根+后缀:ir(不)+re(反对)+sist(站)+ible→irresistible(不可抵抗的)

前缀+词根+双后缀:se(离)+greg(群)+ation+ist→segregationist(种族隔离主义者)

双前缀+词根+双后缀:un(不)+pre(先)+ced(走)+ent+ed→unprecedented(史无前例的)

(2) 上下文线索

利用上下文线索猜测词义的方法很多,但其核心是寻找与该生僻词相关的上下文意义线索,这些线索主要可归纳为以下几种:

①同义定义为了便于读者理解作者本义,作者有时会对文中的生僻词或专业性较强的词直接给出定义。在下定义时,作者常使用一些信号词,如:is/are(called),means,can

be defined as,refer to,is/are known as,signify等,例:

Food fallacies refer to beliefs about food that are not true.

或标点符号,如——,()等,例:

Multiplexing ——transmitting independent signals at the same time in the

same channel——increases the efficiency of radio channels.

有时,作者用同位语形式或连词or给出定义,例:

Nerve cells evidently first appeared in coelenterates, “hollowgutted”

organisms like hydra and the sea anemone.

Intelligent behavior remained impossible until the appearance of relatively

big,complex types of brain——the types we find among the vertebrates,or backboned

animals.

②近义复述同一短文中上下毗邻的句子通常有互释作用,我们可以从上下文的复述中获取与某一单词相关的信息来猜度词义。例:

Mr. and Mrs. Firth had a long courtship. They dated for nine years before

they got married.

Although he often had the opportunity,Mr. Tritt never stole money from a

customer. This would have endangered his position at the bank,and he did not

want to jeopardize his future.

③反义对照在表示对照的上下文中,常包含有意义相反的词语或概念,这些意义相反的概念可以互为线索,帮助我们猜度词义。常有以下一些信号词:although,but,however,though,whereas,while,yet,on

the contrary,on the other hand等。

例:Chimpanzees(猩猩) in the wild use simple objects as tools,but in laboratory

situations they can use more sophisticated items.

Most dentists-offices are drab places,while Emilio‘s new office is a

bright,cheerful place.

④搭配集合利用词与词的搭配或该词所出现的语境,我们也能推知词义的大概轮廓。例:

People gathered to look. Three fine streams of hot water sprouted from

holes in the jacket(套,壳) of the radiator.

A man is watering his lawn just as an attractive,well dressed girl walked

by. As he ogles her,he accidentally turns the hose on his ugly,dowdy wife.

⑤比较举例上下文中的比较和举例,能揭示比较物或列举物之间的共性,我们可根据这些共性来推知有关词语的意思。例:

The consequences of epochal events such as wars and great scientific

discoveries are not confined to a small geographical area.

Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health. They

also regard drinking as harmful.

⑥因果时间因与果、时间的先与后都是事物发展变化过程中的必然关系,在利用上下文推测词义时,这些关系也至关重要。例:

Robert is considered peremptory administrator because he makes decisions

without seeking the opinions of others.

When Mark was in pedantic mood,he assumed the manner of a famous professor

and gave long lectures on boring, insignificant topics.

⑦常识包括我们的生活经历、经验常识以及自己专业方面的知识,在阅读到与自己专业相近的文章时,我们都会感到相对容易,这正是我们的专业知识在帮我们理解。例:

An apple falls down instead of up because of gravity.

An atomic clock is so precise that it can be used to check the accuracy of

predictions based on Einstein‘s relativity theories.

2017英语四级阅读技巧:猜词的技巧有哪些?相信你已经从以上的内容中找到了问题的答案。

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